Deed of Company Arrangement: A Lifeline for Struggling Companies

A Deed of Company Arrangement (DOCA) is a crucial tool in corporate insolvency, designed to help struggling companies regain their footing or provide a better return to creditors than liquidation. When a company is facing financial distress, a DOCA can offer a structured path to recovery while protecting the interests of creditors and other stakeholders. This article will explore the concept of a DOCA, the process of its implementation, its benefits, key components, and the implications for all parties involved.

Understanding a Deed of Company Arrangement (DOCA)

A DOCA is a legally binding agreement between a company and its creditors that outlines how the company’s affairs will be dealt with to maximise the chances of its survival or provide a better outcome for creditors than an immediate liquidation. The arrangement is proposed by the company’s voluntary administrator, who is appointed to assess the company’s financial situation and recommend the best course of action. Click here to know more about deed of company arrangement

The Process of Implementing a DOCA

The process of implementing a DOCA involves several stages:

Appointment of Voluntary Administrator: When a company is insolvent or likely to become insolvent, the directors may appoint a voluntary administrator. The administrator takes control of the company and begins to assess its financial position.

Administrator’s Investigation: The administrator conducts a thorough investigation of the company’s affairs, including its assets, liabilities, business operations, and financial records. This investigation is essential for understanding the company’s viability and determining the best path forward.

Proposal for DOCA: Based on their findings, the administrator may propose a DOCA as the best solution for the company and its creditors. This proposal outlines the terms and conditions under which the company’s affairs will be managed, including how debts will be repaid and any changes to the company’s structure or operations.

Creditors’ Meetings: Two key meetings are held with the company’s creditors. The first meeting is usually convened within eight business days of the administrator’s appointment to inform creditors of the process and their rights. The second meeting, held within 25 business days, is where creditors vote on the proposed DOCA. For the DOCA to be approved, it must receive a majority in both the number of creditors and the value of their claims.

Implementation of DOCA: Once approved by the creditors, the DOCA becomes legally binding on all parties. The administrator, now often referred to as the deed administrator, oversees the implementation of the DOCA, ensuring that the company adheres to the terms and conditions outlined in the agreement.

Benefits of a DOCA

A DOCA offers several benefits for both the company and its creditors:

Survival of the Company: One of the primary benefits of a DOCA is that it provides an opportunity for the company to continue operating, preserving jobs and maintaining business relationships.

Better Return for Creditors: Compared to immediate liquidation, a DOCA often offers a better return for creditors. The arrangement can include structured payments over time or partial debt forgiveness, allowing creditors to recover more than they might through liquidation.

Legal Protection: While the DOCA is in place, the company is protected from legal action by creditors, giving it the necessary breathing space to restructure and implement the agreed-upon plan.

Flexible and Tailored Solutions: A DOCA can be customised to fit the specific needs and circumstances of the company and its creditors. This flexibility can make it easier to reach an agreement that satisfies all parties involved.

Key Components of a DOCA

A DOCA typically includes several key components, each tailored to address the specific needs of the company and its creditors:

Payment Terms: The DOCA outlines how the company will repay its debts. This might include lump-sum payments, periodic instalments, or a combination of both. The payment plan is designed to balance the company’s ability to pay with the creditors’ need for repayment.

Moratorium on Claims: During the term of the DOCA, creditors are usually prevented from taking legal action against the company to recover their debts. This moratorium provides the company with the necessary breathing space to implement the DOCA.

Operational Changes: The DOCA may include provisions for changes to the company’s operations, management, or structure. These changes are intended to improve the company’s financial health and ensure its long-term viability.

Asset Realisation: In some cases, the DOCA might involve the sale of certain assets to generate funds for creditor repayments. This process is overseen by the deed administrator to ensure transparency and fairness.

Reporting and Compliance: The DOCA outlines the reporting requirements and compliance obligations for the company. Regular updates and financial reports are typically required to keep creditors informed of the company’s progress.

Implications for Stakeholders

The implementation of a DOCA has significant implications for various stakeholders, including directors, employees, creditors, and shareholders:

Directors: While the DOCA is in effect, the company’s directors may have limited control over its operations. However, they are required to assist the deed administrator and comply with the terms of the DMCA.

Employees: Employees generally benefit from a DOCA as it provides a better chance for the company to continue operating, thereby preserving jobs. Their entitlements, such as unpaid wages and leave, are usually given priority in the DOCA.

Creditors: Creditors play a crucial role in the DOCA process as their approval is necessary for the arrangement to proceed. They benefit from potentially higher returns compared to liquidation and have a say in the terms of the DMCA.

Shareholders: Shareholders might experience dilution of their equity or changes in the company’s structure. However, the successful implementation of a DOCA can enhance the long-term value of their investment.

Challenges and Considerations

While a DOCA offers many benefits, there are also challenges and considerations to keep in mind:

Creditor Agreement: Achieving agreement among creditors can be challenging, especially when their interests and priorities differ. Effective communication and negotiation are essential.

Implementation Risks: The success of a DOCA depends on the company’s ability to adhere to the agreed-upon terms. Financial or operational setbacks can jeopardise the arrangement.

Complexity and Costs: The process of proposing and implementing a DOCA can be complex and costly, requiring legal and financial expertise. These costs need to be weighed against the potential benefits.


A Deed of Company Arrangement is a valuable mechanism in the realm of corporate insolvency, offering a structured and potentially less damaging alternative to liquidation. By providing a framework for the company to manage its debts and continue operating, a DOCA can benefit all stakeholders involved. Understanding the process, benefits, and implications of a DOCA can help companies and creditors navigate financial distress with a clear and strategic approach. Whether it leads to the survival of the company or a better return for creditors, a DOCA represents a lifeline for businesses facing insolvency.